Albert Einstein (in German [ albɛɐ̯t aɪnʃtaɪn ], Ulm , German Empire , 14 of March of 1879 – Princeton , United States , 18 of April of 1955 ) was a German physicist. He is considered the most well-known and popular scientist of the 20th century.
In 1905, when he was a young unknown physicist, employed in the Patent Office of Berne , he published his theory of special relativity . In it, he incorporated, in a simple theoretical framework based on simple physical postulates, concepts and phenomena studied by Henri Poincaré and Hendrik Lorentz . As a logical consequence of this theory, he deduced the most popular equation of physics at the popular level: the mass-energy equivalence, E = mc² . That year he published other works that would lay some of the foundations of statistical physics and quantum mechanics .
In 1915, he presented the theory of general relativity , in which he completely reformulated the concept of gravity . One of the consequences was the emergence of the scientific study of the origin and evolution of the Universe by the branch of physics called cosmology . In 1919, when the British observations of a solar eclipse confirmed his predictions about the curvature of light, he was idolized by the press. 4 Einstein became a popular icon of world-famous science, a privilege within the reach of very few scientists.
For his explanations on the photoelectric effect and his numerous contributions to theoretical physics , in 1921 he won the Nobel Prize for Physics and not for the Theory of Relativity, because the scientist who was entrusted with the task of evaluating it did not understand it, and feared run the risk that then prove wrong. At that time was still considered somewhat controversial.
Before the rise of Nazism , Einstein left Germany around December 1932 to the United States , where he devoted himself to teaching at the Institute for Advanced Study . He became an American citizen in 1940. During his last years he worked to integrate gravitational and electromagnetic forces into the same theory .
Although he is considered by some to be the “father of the atomic bomb “, he advocated world federalism , internationalism , pacifism , Zionism and democratic socialism , with a strong devotion to individual freedom and freedom of expression . He was proclaimed as the “character of the twentieth century ‘and the most preeminent scientist by the Time magazine.
He was born in the German city of Ulm , a hundred kilometers east of Stuttgart , in the bosom of a Jewish family. His parents were Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch. Hermann and Pauline had married in 1876, when Hermann was almost twenty-nine years old and she was eighteen. 13 Pauline’s family lived near Stuttgart , specifically in the city of Cannstatt ; there his father, Julius Koch, exploited with his brother Heinrich a very prosperous trade of cereals . Pauline played the piano and gave her son his love for music , among other qualities such as his “perseverance and patience”. 14From his father, Hermann, he also inherited certain characteristics such as the generosity and kindness that characterized Albert.
Thus, the Einstein family tried to enroll Albert at the Federal Polytechnic School of Zurich but, not having the bachelor’s degree, had to take an entrance exam that he failed because of a poor grade in a subject of letters. This meant that he was initially rejected, but the director of the center, impressed by his results in science, advised him to continue his bachelor studies and obtain the degree that would give him direct access to the Polytechnic. His family sent him to Aarau to finish his secondary studies at the cantonal school of Aargau, about 50 km west of Zurich, where Einstein obtained a German bachelor’s degree in 1896, at the age of sixteen. That same year he resigned his German citizenship, presumably to avoid military service, becoming a stateless person. He started the procedures to become a Swiss citizen. At the end of 1896, at the age of seventeen, Einstein entered the Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich , Switzerland, probably the most important center of central Europe to study science outside of Germany, enrolling in the School of Mathematical and Scientific Guidance , with the idea of studying physics.
In 1908, at the age of twenty-nine, he was hired at the University of Bern , Switzerland , as professor and lecturer ( Privatdozent ). Einstein and Mileva had a new son, Eduard , born on July 28, 1910. Shortly after the family moved to Prague , where Einstein obtained the position of Professor of theoretical physics, the equivalent of a professor, at the German University in Prague, must adopt the Austrian nationality to be able to accede to the position. During this time he worked closely with Marcel Grossmann and Otto Stern . He also started calling the fourth dimension mathematical time. 25 In 1913, just before the First World War , he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He established his residence in Berlin , where he stayed for seventeen years. Emperor William invited him to direct the Physics section of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics .
Einstein said that morality was not dictated by God, but by mankind:
“I do not believe in the immorality of the individual, and I consider ethics an exclusively human concern over which there is no superhuman authority.”